The New Quest for the Historical Jesus


By Joe LaGuardia

In the last two hundred years of biblical research, scholars have outlined various “quests” for the historical Jesus.  Each quest accompanies new insights into historical records and artifacts that emphasize some never-before-understood facet about Jesus of Nazareth.

The first quest, around the turn of the eighteenth century, applied new approaches of historical inquiry to the Bible.  Many, like Thomas Jefferson, concluded that Jesus was a wise sage whose many miracles were an invention of the early church.

Other quests thereafter understood Jesus to be a prophet who proclaimed the world’s imminent end.

Now, with the start of a new century, we stand in the shadow of a contemporary, burgeoning quest for the historical Jesus.  Unlike years past, it combines historical research with literary criticism, specialized interpretation, and global, multicultural experiences of the Risen Christ.

For many, the freedom to marry objective inquiry with spiritual, global awakening is refreshing.

I am reminded of a book review I did some time ago on Jonathon Merritt’s Jesus is Better than You Imagined.  I noted that the book focused on Merritt’s experiences of Jesus more than the life of Christ or the many ways that historians understand his ministry, death, and resurrection.

Little did I know that this type of experiential writing tipped a hat to a new quest that makes the reading community–those of us deeply invested in the Bible and the life of Christ–a part of the interpretation of who Christ was and is.

edgarIn his book, Jesus Christ Today, New Testament scholar Edgar McKnight notes that this kind of interpretation marks one of three contemporary interpretative resources that define a new quest for the historical Jesus.

Whereas the first resource is that of experience and multicultural theology, a second resource originates in ongoing conversations with world religions.

Echoing an age-old question aptly summarized by Catholic theologian Paul Knitter, Christians are asking whether Jesus is the “name above names” or simply “the name among other names.”

Our understanding of other world religions — their dissimilarities as well as similarities to Christianity, including similarities related to a penchant towards religious fundamentalism and violence — is shaping how we read Christ’s teachings and the impact he has made on the church and history.

No matter how we answer Knitter’s question, however, we cannot deny that theological study and dialogue with other religions illuminates Jesus’ presence in our life.

A third interpretative resource consists of scholars and clergy who understand Jesus as a rabbi deeply embedded in the Judaism that shaped his teachings and understanding of God.

It was not until after the Holocaust–and the realization that much of Christian theology influenced anti-Semitic policies in the west–that scholars revisited and affirmed Jesus’ Jewish identity and relationship to the people of Israel.

Geza Vermes, E. P. Sanders, and N. T. Wright are but some contemporary scholars who have mined the Bible with this field of investigation in mind.  N. T. Wright, a popular author even in conservative, evangelical circles has argued persuasively that Jesus cannot be understood apart from the Jewish worldview of the First Century.

It is precisely this type of quest that has ignited a reexamination of the Bible and inspired Christians to practice a vibrant, fresh faith in which Jesus has become all the more “relevant” in the minds of believers around the world.

It is relevant because this examination has political ramifications.  The more Christians listen to different communities of faith–be it Jewish or otherwise–the more Christians are forced to reconcile Jesus’ message of peace with the ongoing religious conflicts that detrimentally affect global politics and the Middle East in particular.

This new quest–steeped in interpretative communities that emphasize religious experience, world religions, and Jesus’ Jewish roots–has the power to add a valuable and much-needed voice in a world that is becoming more divisive and violent due to the fracturing of historical, political, and religious ideologies.

No matter where we stand in this new quest, may we faithfully seek Christ and respond to His cause for peace wherever we trod.

One student’s plea to Pastor Terry Jones: please do not burn Quran on 9/11

By Ayman Ibrahim

Pastor and author Terry Jones, along with his congregation, plans to burn the Quran on September 11 in an attempt to urge Americans to “stand up” against the threat of Islam and to encourage the church to “be strong.”

He writes, “Our Land needs strong churches that understand and fulfill God’s vision of restoration and reformation.” Jones, who wrote Islam Is of the Devil, claims on his website that many Americans have supported his call to burn the Quran by sending him copies to be burned.

“What would Jesus do?” That was the question that came to my mind when I read about Pastor Jones. Being from the Middle East, I can feel the dramatic consequences of this horrific event if it were to actually take place.

First, the cycle of violence will never stop. You burn the Quran in America; someone will burn down a church, with its people, in Egypt. You burn the “sacred” book of Muslims, and an entire family could be set on fire in Indonesia.

Second, once you burn the Quran, you can no longer talk about the Bible as a peaceful message or good news—you have already violated and refuted your own message.

Third, by burning the Quran you offend 1.5 billion Muslims, claiming that all types of Muslims—cultural, Quranic, and militant—are from the devil and all the same.

Last January, Muslim fundamentalists decided to kill the joy of Christians in Upper Egypt through violence, by killing innocent Coptic Christians celebrating on Christmas Eve. Quranic and cultural Muslims went to sympathize with Christians, because they did not accept what some “Muslims” did.

This coming Saturday, Pastor Jones intends to kill the joy of Muslims worldwide by burning their holy of holies, claiming that such an act would make the Church strong.  He writes on his website, “Our Land needs churches that are able to handle the revival we will see this century with the apostolic anointing.”

By burning the Quran you will not handle a revival; you will need to learn how to handle fights and cope with massacres. Moreover, this September 11 will overlap with the Muslim feast after the fasting of Ramadan, which will only intensify the situation.

Pastor Jones, what do you mean by a “strong” church—is it a church that holds weapons? That sends fire against enemies? This is not the gospel; it is insanity.

If you burn the Quran in America, you are sending thousands of churches in the Middle East into fire.

If you burn the Quran in your church, you are igniting violence against churches and Christians worldwide. You are free to do what you want in America, while in some parts of the world many Christians are not so free—and you are sending them into a literal fire. I wish you could live in Egypt for a few days to know how utterly senseless your action would be and the damage it would cause!

Pastor Jones, do not do this, please! It would be an example of disrespect such as no one has seen in the Word of God. By burning the Quran, you are isolating Christians and identifying them as enemies to Muslims.

After such an act, how could a Christian possibly present the gospel to a Muslim friend? In Luke 9, when the people of the Samaritan village did not welcome Jesus, the disciples James and John said to Jesus, “Lord, should we call down fire from heaven to burn them up?”

Jesus turned, and rebuked them, and said, “You do not know what manner of spirit you are of.”

Ayman Ibrahim is a Christian from Egypt and a doctoral student at Fuller Theological Seminary.  Article is printed with permission by the author.